Abstract：It is the development of optical communications that has raised transmission capability of a single fiber up to 6 orders of magnitude, and provided a solid communication basis for high-speed backbone networks. However, the access network technology develops comparatively slowly and has been regarded to as the “Last Mile” or “First Mile” communication problem. Access network refers to that from the edge of backbone networks to individual costomer computer,and playsan important part in the communication subnet composed if Relay System or Intermediate System in OSI/RM.Therefore,access network may get the three lower layers in OSI/RM involved. The access network communication techniques with an emphasis on wire-based high-speed communication techniques were addressed, although a few new wireless techniques with potentials were also discussed. Finally,it concludes that high-speed access network communication techniques in the future will be characterized by diversity, higher speed, long transmission distance, and lower cost.