To protect the privacy data stored in mobile devices, a secure storage and self-destruction scheme for mobile devices was proposed, which was based on data compression, threshold secret sharing and mobile social networks. In this security scheme, the private data was first compressed with a lossless compression technique, and then the compressed data was encrypted symmetrically by a symmetric key to obtain primitive ciphertext, which was divided into two parts of ciphertext. With time attribute, one part of ciphertext was encapsulated into the Mobile Data Self-destructing Object (MDSO), which was stored in cloud servers. Furthermore, with the symmetric key and time attribute, the other part of ciphertext was processed by the Lagrange polynomial, and the mixture ciphertext shares were generated. At last, these mixture ciphertext shares were embedded into the pictures sharing to social networks. When the authorization was expired, no one could obtain ciphertext block to recombine the original ciphertext, so the security of the privacy data could be protected. The experimental results show that, the sum of the compression and encryption time is only 22 ms when the size of file is 10 KB, which explains the proposed scheme has low performance overhead; furthermore, the results of the comprehensive analysis indicate that the proposed scheme has high security, and it can resist against attacks effectively and protect the mobile privacy data.