In order to improve the quality of medical image super-resolution reconstruction, a wide residual super-resolution neural network algorithm based on depthwise separable convolution was proposed. Firstly, the depthwise separable convolution was used to improve the residual block of the network, widen the channel of the convolution layer in the residual block, and pass more feature information into the activation function, making the shallow low-level image features in the network easier transmitted to the upper level, so that the quality of medical image super-resolution reconstruction was enhanced. Then, the network was trained by group normalization, the channel dimension of the convolutional layer was divided into groups, and the normalized mean and variance were calculated in each group, which made the network training process converge faster, and solved the difficulty of network training because the depthwise separable convolution widens the number of channels. Meanwhile, the network showed better performance. The experimental results show that compared with the traditional nearest neighbor interpolation, bicubic interpolation super-resolution algorithm and the super-resolution algorithm based on sparse expression, the medical image reconstructed by the proposed algorithm has richer texture detail and more realistic visual effects. Compared with the super-resolution algorithm based on convolutional neural network, the super-resolution neural network algorithm based on wide residual and the generative adversarial-network super-resolution algorithm, the proposed algorithm has a significant improvement in PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and SSIM (Structural SIMilarity index).